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统计局:1-6月份全国房地产开发投资55531亿元 同比增9.7%

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 家居行业将迎来“微”革命 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

开发商涌入产业地产 拼资金拼能力运营不易

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Mr Cook’s lack of showmanship has not always been seen as an asset.
Quanta Computer, ” in October. Samsung is also reported to be working on a 12 to 13-inch tablet, and it seems evident that “these large-size tablets will greatly impact ultrabook demand.” This “iPad Max” will be a defacto laptop with the addition of new cases with integrated keyboards and batteries and could well become a mainstay for high schools and college students who need better content creation tools than thos offers on existing iPads and iPad Minis.
Everyone has both, but people tend to be most attached to their “best” identity — the one that offers the most social status or privileges. Successful professionals, for example, often define their identities primarily through their careers.
优秀的老板们懂得授权的艺术。我的一位评论家说要沿着线走“他们已经从目前的工作里面抽身”,意味着他们不干涉每一天和每一分的工作流程和程序。本质上,学着去授权给员工去代替微化管理是对员工的一种信任。
While Jodie Foster used to opt for the bathroom – “they looked good with the faucets” – she has since moved the two she won for The Accused and Silence of the Lambs to a much more orthodox spot: a trophy case.
A retrospective section will include movies produced by the Shanghai studio Wenhua, a company founded in 1946 that ushered a new era of Chinese art-house films, Zhang said, giving viewers "a glimpse of Chinese cinematic culture and history".
15. “The End of the Tour” (James Ponsoldt)

“Since these developments will not fade overnight, there is little hope for a trade revival in 2017,” says Mr Leering.
俄罗斯为世界上第十大经济体,除了天然气(碳氢化合物),经济贡献甚微。腐败和寻租行为使经济蒙受巨大损失。它依然沿用着苏联时代的基础设施,并且满足国民教育、医疗需求的能力正急速下滑。
全食CEO约翰麦基的《自觉资本主义》(Conscious Capitalism)一书让公司高管们不得不思考这样一个观点,那就是处于最佳运转状态的企业能为所有利益相关方创造价值,而不仅仅是投资者。麦基认为,主要利益相关方包括顾客、员工、供应商、社会以及环境。他以好市多、西南航空(Southwest Airlines ,《财富》500强)和谷歌(Google,《财富》500强)为例,说明思维超越利润能够打造更强大而、更高效的公司。
课程安排:为期一周的课前培训后,学员在每周末的星期五和星期六交替上课,周五晚提供住宿。最后一个学期需住校学习两周,其余时间在线完成学习任务。
It scares/intimidates people and they don't know better anyway.

Footnotes

  • 楼市将迎来变化 买房者或错过最佳购房时期
  • 眼下,这位大摩新掌门或许意识到了来自零售经纪业务的微薄盈利还不够华尔街薪酬的血盆大口塞牙缝。预计戈尔曼会决定最终要向交易商高盛(Goldman Sachs)看齐。

“十二五”期间,中国累计实际使用外资预计达到6200亿美元,第三产业实际利用外资占比提高到60%以上。同期中国对外直接投资年均增长14.2%。
The Caixin-sponsored series is based on a much smaller sample of private companies than the official PMI reading, which focuses on larger state enterprises, and tends to be more volatile.
新年可能平淡开场。但在中国不是这样,2016年中国股市的开局相当刺激,交易员们简直要窒息在泡沫中:周一沪市下跌7%,深市跌幅超过了8%。情况本来可能会更糟糕。一项在沪深300指数下跌7%时暂停交易的新机制让这场大戏提早落幕——就这次的情况而言,是提早了一个半小时。
Among the 18 sectors categorized by the China Securities Regulatory Commission, financial executives ranked the highest with annual pay of 27.36 million yuan, followed by real estate executives at 11.18 million yuan.
能够再次主持奥斯卡我感到非常激动和荣幸。你知道有句老话:第三次总是幸运的。
那么,这对2015年的油价意味着什么呢?人们对此各执己见。然而,今后12个月的油价走势将由下列五大因素(排名不分先后)决定。

楼市“高烧不退” 北上深住宅楼面价超过香港

References

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